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日蓬堡-帕罗宗

日蓬堡-帕罗宗 Rinpung Dzong:不丹最为知名的宗堡,或许是你见到的不丹建筑里的最好代表。帕罗宗的本名应叫作日蓬堡,意思是"堡垒上的珠宝堆",始建于1644年。这里曾被用做保卫帕罗河谷的堡垒。帕罗宗和不丹其他堡垒一样,即是佛教寺庙,又担任一些政府职能。它的前身是地方政府的办公机关,包括国民议会的会议大厅和地方法院都曾建在这里。不丹著名的电影《小活佛》在此取景。这里仍居住着约200名僧侣。寺院东南角的礼堂是他们每日用斋饭的地方。盛大的帕罗戒楚节每年春天在这里举行,吸引成千上万的当地居民和游客前往,场面相当热烈。  
  
古时用作帕罗宗瞭望塔的"塔宗",现在已建成为不丹的"国家博物馆",藏有多达3000件艺术品。博物馆的圆形外观据说是佛教吉祥法器海螺的形状。博物馆分6层,各层的文物分别不同,包括宗教、国家发展历程、邮票、老照片、生产生活、动植物等各方面。


Rinpung Dzong:
Explore the Rinpung Dzong which the locals call the ‘fortress of a heap of jewels’. Built in 1646 by Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal, the dzong stands on a hill above Paro Township. It is linked by the traditional cantilever bridge (called the Nemi Zam) over the Pa chu where one may pose a photograph. Experience a walk up a paved stone path running alongside the imposing outer walls. Once inside the Dzong, you will be welcomed by the monks, architecture and the ancient frescoes.
PARO (RINPUNG) DZONG
The Paro Dzong is one of Bhutan’s most impressive and well-known dzongs, and perhaps the finest example of Bhutanese architecture you’ll see. The massive buttressed walls tower over the town and are visible throughout the valley.
The dzong’s correct name, Rinchen Pung Dzong (usually shortened to Rinpung Dzong), means ‘fortress on a heap of jewels’. In 1644 Zhabdrung Ngawang Namgyal ordered the construction of the dzong on the foundation of a monastery built by Guru Rinpoche. The fort was used on numerous occasions to defend the Paro valley from invasions by Tibet. The British political officer John Claude White reported that in 1905 there were old catapults for throwing great stones stored in the rafters of the dzong’s veranda.
The dzong survived the 1897 earthquake but a fire severely damaged the dzong in 1907. It was formerly the meeting hall for the National Assembly and now, like most dzongs, houses both the monastic body and district government offices, including the local courts.
Scenes from Bernardo Bertolucci’s 1995 film Little Buddha were filmed here.
Visiting the Dzong
The dzong is built on a steep hillside, and the front courtyard of the administrative section is 6m higher than the courtyard of the monastic portion. A road climbs the hill to the dzong’s northern entrance, which leads into the dochey (courtyard) on the 3rd storey. The utse (central tower) inside the dochey is five storeys tall and was built in the time of the first penlop (governor) of Paro in 1649. To the east of the utse is another small lhakhang dedicated to Chuchizhey, an 11-headed manifestation of Chenresig. The richly carved wood, painted in gold, black and ochres, and the towering whitewashed walls serve to reinforce the sense of power and wealth.
A stairway leads down to the monastic quarter, which houses about 200 monks. In the southeast corner (to the left) is the kunre, which is where the monks eat their communal meals. Look out for the mural of the ‘mystic spiral’, a uniquely Bhutanese variation on the mandala. The large dukhang (prayer hall) opposite has lovely exterior murals depicting the life of Tibet’s poet-saint Milarepa. The first day of the spring Paro tsechu is held in this courtyard, which fills to bursting point.
Outside the dzong, to the northeast of the entrance, is a stone-paved area where masked dancers perform the main dances of the tsechu. A thondrol (huge thangka, painted or embroidered religious picture) of Guru Rinpoche, more than 18m square, is unfurled shortly after dawn on the final day of the tse-chu - you can see the huge rail upon which it is hung. It was commissioned in the 18th century by the eighth desi (secular ruler of Bhutan, also known as druk desi), Chhogyel Sherab Wangchuck.
Below the dzong, a traditional wooden covered bridge called Nyamai Zam spans the Paro Chhu. This is a reconstruction of the original bridge, which was washed away in a flood in 1969. Earlier versions of this bridge were removed in time of war to protect the dzong. You can walk from the parking area near the Ugyen Pelri Palace across the bridge up to the dzong. The most picturesque pictures of Paro Dzong are taken from the west bank of the river, just downstream from the bridge.
The dzong courtyard is open daily but on weekends the offices are deserted and most chapels are closed.
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