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扎西确

扎西确宗 Tashichho Gzong:亦称扎西却城堡,位于旺楚克河西岸, 这是一座庄严而盛大的王宫城堡(相当于我国的中南海),是现任不丹国王的办公场所,也是不丹全国宗教首领法王和中央宗教机构驻所。城堡内气势非凡,墙上壁画华美高贵。同时,我们还可以一睹不丹国王的住家和萨尔克大楼的风貌。
 
扎西确宗靠近廷布谷地中心,海拔2500米,建于13世纪,由不丹宗教之父帕角·杜冈·斯普戈Phajo Dugon Shipgo喇嘛所建。1641年,沙布东一世对该城堡进行扩建。此后,由于该寺院原有的大部分建筑物毁于火灾和地震,1961年,吉格梅·多尔吉·旺楚克三世国王进行了重新修建。该城堡为一座四边形石砌建筑物,高7层,每层高度4.5~6米不等,盖以冷杉木缓斜屋顶,衬有木板,其屋檐宽阔。房间外面有一排用美观的柱子支撑的游廊和9米多高的围墙,从墙基到顶部,稍稍向内倾斜,兰墙处有一排阳台,在阳台的下面有些小窗。南面和东面的两个入口可通外面的一段阶石,两扇大门以铁把手加固。在城堡中央是喇嘛首领的正方形建筑物宅邸。左右两边的路都通往铺以平滑石子的大广场和喇嘛房间。

扎西却城堡现在是基堪布大主教(即法王)的夏宫。每年3月30日至9月30日(不丹日),基堪布都要率领中央寺院众喇嘛从普那卡搬回扎西却城堡度夏。

Tashi Chho Dzong:
The“fortress of the glorious religion” was initially erected in 1641 and rebuilt by King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck in the 1960s.  Tashichhodzong houses some ministries, His Majesty’s secretariat, and the central monk body.
Trashi Chhoe Dzong
This large dzong, north of the city on the west bank of the Wang Chhu, manages not to impose on the valley or the city as a dominating, impenetrable fortress; rather, its splendid proportions and modest setting bestow a subtle, monastic magnificence. The whitewashed outer structure is two storeys high with three-storey towers at the four corners projecting B out over the walls and capped by red-and-gold, triple-tiered roofs. The outer walls are built of trimmed, neatly fitted granite blocks, unlike other dzongs, which were made of roughly dressed stones. Similarly, the dochey (courtyard) is paved with rectangular stone slabs. The dzong housed the original National Assembly and now houses the secretariat, the throne room and offices of the king and the ministries of home affairs and finance.
Trashi Chhoe has two main entrances on its eastern side. One leads to the administrative section towards the south, and another, towards the north, leads to the monastic quarter, the summer residence of the dratshang (central monk body), and where the dances of the annual tsechu festival are performed. The dzong’s Sangay Tsokhorsum Thondrol (the immense thangka-painted or embroidered religious picture-that is unfurled at the climax of the tsechu) depicts the Buddha Sakyamuni and his two disciples.
Entering the dzong you are greeted by lively sculptures of the Guardians of the Four Directions , the wrathful gatekeepers Chana Dorje and Hayagriva, and the popular ‘Divine Madman’, Drukpa Kunley . Look for the mural of the Four Friends , depicting a much-loved Bhutanese fable. Upon entering the courtyard you are taken by the splendid proportions of the architecture and the vast courtyard; the enclosed silence only broken by the flight of pigeons, the shuffle of feet and the whirr of prayer wheels. A large utse (central tower) separates the northern monastic courtyard, which surrounds the highly decorated Lhakhang Sarpa (New Temple), from the southern courtyard. The northern monastic assembly hall houses a large statue of Sakyamuni, the Historical Buddha , and meticulous murals illustrate the life of Buddha and portray mystical mandalas.
This is not the original Thimphu dzong. In 1216 Lama Gyalwa Lhanangpa built Dho-Ngen Dzong (Blue Stone Dzong) on the hill above Thimphu where Dechen Phodrang now stands. A few years later Lama Phajo Drukgom Shigpo, who brought the Drukpa Kagyu lineage to Bhutan, took over the dzong. In 1641 the Zhabdrung acquired the dzong from the descendants of Lama Phajo and renamed it Trashi Chhoe Dzong (Fortress of the Glorious Religion). He arranged to house both monks and civil officials in the dzong, but it was soon found to be too small. The Zhabdrung then built another dzong, known as the lower dzong, for the civil officials and used the original building for the monks. The 13th Druk Desi, Chhogyel Sherab Wangchuck (1744-63), later enlarged Trashi Chhoe Dzong so that it could again accommodate both civil officials and monks.
The original dzong was destroyed by fire in 1771 and was abandoned in favour of the lower dzong, which was expanded. That dzong itself suffered a fire in 1866 and twice since then. The five-storey utse was damaged in the 1897 earthquake and rebuilt in 1902.
When he moved the capital to Thimphu in 1962, King Jigme Dorji Wangchuck began a five-year project to completely renovate and enlarge the dzong. The royal architect performed the repairs without touching the utse, Lhakhang Sarpa or any other of its chapels at the centre. Other than these structures, the entire dzong was rebuilt in traditional fashion, without nails or written plans.
Below the dzong is an excellent example of a traditional cantilever bridge. To the south of the dzong is a set of low (and unattractive) administration buildings (for which there are demolition plans). West of the dzong is the small tower of Ney Khang Lhakhang, which houses a statue of Sakyamuni flanked by the protective deity Gyenyen Jagpa Melen and Dorje Daktshen, the female guardian deity of Phajoding.
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